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Identification of native forest trees on Australia's east coast, including; tropical, subtropical, warm temperate and cool temperate rainforest species. Five images for every species show tree features that are useful in identification. Identify trees and shrubs by fruit, flower, bark and leaf characteristics. The natural distribution range and detailed descriptions useful in classification are given for every specimen listed on the web page below. This free resource is constantly extended, revised and updated. Species in the following genera are listed in groups on our web pages: Australian Fig trees (Ficus spp.), Australian Eucalypts (Eucalyptus spp.), Grevilleas (Grevillea spp.) and Lilly Pillies, Satinashes (Syzygium spp.). Otherwise all native Australian tree species are listed by common name in alphabetical order. Select pictures for full size view (opens new browser window).
Wallum Bottlebrush Callistemon pachyphyllus Other names: Thick-leaved Bottlebrush
The Wallum Bottlebrush can be identified by the considerable thickness and unique shape of its leaves, which is reflected in the alternative common name. Under ideal conditions it may reach a height of 3m, but in exposed coastal sites it is a straggling shrub about 1m tall (Image 1). Bark is brown, weathering to grey, fibrous and flaky in texture (2). The beautiful crimson red or sometimes yellowish-green coloured flowers appear in tight groups towards the end of young branches and together form the characteristic bottlebrush shape. Individual flowers are dominated by a multitude of stamens that surround the longer style in the centre. The fruit is a woody capsule, measures up to 7mm in diameter and takes about twelve months to mature (3). Simple leaves with an alternate arrangement are crowded towards the end of branches. They are; up to 12cm long, narrowly oblanceolate (reverse lance-shaped) with entire margins, dark green on top, similar or only slightly paler beneath, thick, firm in texture and terminate in fine tips (4 & 5). Distribution: central NSW to subtropical Qld. This very ornamental species is also known under the botanical name of Melaleuca pachyphylla. See Flower Characteristics Page for explanations of definitions used.
Water Gum Tristaniopsis laurina Other names: Kanuka
This species is a common occurrence on Australia's east coast and often grows near stream banks (fresh water). Other preferred habitats include warm temperate and subtropical rainforests. It has the potential to reach a height of 30m (Image 1). Fresh bark is grey in colour, then turning brown before shedding in long strips, and has a very smooth texture (2). Abundant beautiful yellow flowers are up to 15 mm in diameter and feature (mostly) five small rounded or more oval shaped petals. Flowering period is late spring and summer (3). The fruit is a hard capsule with 3 valves (segments) opening at the apex to disperse a large number of small papery winged seeds. Depending on climate zones fruit ripens from late summer to early winter (4). Simple leaves with an alternate arrangement are; up to 15 cm long, oblanceolate in shape with entire margins, hairless, dark green on top, paler green beneath, firm and leathery in texture (5). Distribution: Victoria, NSW to central Qld. Notes: This species is very useful in riverbank regeneration planting for its hardiness in different environments and the ability to stay submerged for days. See Leaf Characteristics Page for explanations of definitions used.
How to recognise Australian tree families and genera.
A practical field guide to the identification of native species. More than 200 full colour photographs and detailed descriptions explaining leaf, bark, flower, fruit and other tree characteristics.
New Holland Publishers
Format: Paperback with PVC
Pages: 128 pp.
Size: 13 cm wide x 18 cm high
Wedge-leaved Tuckeroo Cupaniopsis wadsworthii Other names: Ducksfoot
As the common name suggests this native Australian shrub is relatively easily identified by its distinctive wedge-shaped leaves. It prefers well-drained locations in tropical rainforests and drier forest types, and grows less than 4m tall (Image 1). Bark is grey in colour with a smooth and firm texture (2). Dark green and glossy foliage is supported by upright branches without much lateral growth, giving this shrub a characteristic appearance (3). The fruit, a capsule typical for the genus, is up to 2 cm long and covered in short fine hair. It features 3 deep lobes, each containing a black seed covered in a bright orange aril (4). On mature specimens pinnate compound leaves consist of 2 to 4 leaflets, which are; up to 8 cm long, wedge shaped with entire margins, glossy, medium thick and firm. Apex is truncated, base shape is cuneate. The mid vein is raised on lower surface and small domatia are visible along it (5). Distribution: Central to northern Qld.
Weeping Tea-tree Leptospermum brachyandrum Note: There is no official common name recorded, but Weeping Tea-Tree is widely used.
The Leptospermum brachyandrum is a tall shrub or small tree up to 6m high, which will develop a drooping canopy with age. Creek banks are its preferred habitat, but the species is adaptable to dryer environments (Image 1). Bark is shades of grey in colour and sheds in rolled-up strips to expose fresh bark, which is smooth and pinkish light brown (2). Flowers are characteristic for the Leptospermum genus with 5 white obovate shaped petals and measure less than 1 cm across. Tight groups of up to 7 individual flowers appear over late spring to early summer from axillary joints towards end of young branches (3). The conical shaped fruit is about 5 mm in diameter at the top and crowned by five persisting sepals. Over autumn it turns hard and woody before releasing numerous tiny light brown seeds from 3 rounded valves (4). Simple leaves with an alternate arrangement are; up to 5 cm long, linear to narrow lanceolate in shape with entire margins, hairless when mature, scented when crushed and firm in texture. Leaf apex is rounded or more acute ending in a fine sharp point (mucronate), base shape is mostly cuneate. The petiole is very short and faint elliptical venation can be seen (5). Distribution: From NSW mid-north coast to northern Qld. See Flower Identification and Leaf Characteristics Page for information on terms used.
White Beech Gmelina leichhardtii
This stately tall tree attains a height of up 40m in subtropical and littoral rainforests (Image 1). Bark is a mottled grey in colour, firm and hard in texture, with rounded scales and small fissures present (2). The vivid blue coloured fruit (a drupe) is roughly globe-shaped and up to 25 mm in diameter. It is fleshy and contains a single hard-shelled seed (3). Growing buds, petiole and twigs are densely covered in fine rusty brown hair (4). Simple leaves with an opposite arrangement are; up to 20 cm long with nearly entire margins, (compared to strongly toothed margins in juvenile leaves, as shown), ovate in shape, dark green glossy, hairless except for veins on upper surface, paler green, hairy beneath, firm and slightly rough in texture. Venation is clearly visible with the centre vein being strongly raised on lower leaf surface. Petiole (leaf stalk) is up to 25 mm long (5). Distribution: From the south coast of NSW to central Qld.
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White Bolly Gum Neolitsea dealbata
This species is very similar to the Green Bolly Gum Neolitsia australiensis (Page 6), but has a smaller growth habit less than 10m tall. It is a common understorey shrub or small tree found in different types of rainforests and surrounding transition zones (Image 1). Bark is mid brown in colour, firm and becomes fissured at the base of older trunks (2). Interesting flowers are a golden yellow colour and appear along older branches in late summer (3). The fruit is a small globe-shaped drupe less than 1 cm in diameter. It turns black at full maturity and contains a single brown seed (4). Simple leaves develop in a whorl beneath the growth bud and turn alternate thereafter. They are; up to 20 cm long, mainly obovate in shape with entire margins, dark green, glossy on top, white waxy beneath, strong and firm in texture. The petiole (leaf stalk) is up to 3 cm long and covered in fine rusty brown hair. Veins on underside of leaf and growth buds are also hairy (5). Distribution: Ranging from the NSW central coast to central Qld. Note: The Green Bolly Gum's has hairless and narrower, elliptic to lanceolate (lance-shaped) leaves.
White Booyong Argyrodendron trifoliolatum Other names: Brown Tulip Oak
The White Booyong or Brown Tulip Oak is a very tall tree species reaching up to 45 m in height and occurs within warmer subtropical rainforests. Older specimens develop large buttress roots and a straight trunk (Images 1 & 2). Bark is a light brown in colour with distinct vertical fissures and a firm texture (3). Alternately arranged compound leaves have three leaflets (trifoliolate), which are; up to 15 cm long, oblong to elliptic in shape with undulating (wavy) margins, dark green and glossy on top, paler with a copper coloured sheen below (good identification feature), hairless and rather thin but strong in texture. Leaflet apex is short acuminate, base shape is cuneate. Venation is prominent with the centre vein being raised on both leaflet surfaces. The strong petiole is up to 50 mm long (Photos 4 & 5). Distribution: From the mid-north coast of NSW to Qld. (See Leaf Characteristics Page for explanations of botanical terms used in descriptions.)
White Carabeen Sloanea langii
This tall tree species can reach a height of 40m and is found in upland and lowland types of tropical rainforests, where it often forms the highest level in the canopy. Buttress roots are often present on mature specimens (1). Bark is brown in colour and has rough texture due to small blisters (lenticels) covering the surface (2). The fruit (a capsule) is densely covered in yellow coloured bristles, up to 10 mm long, which will detach when handled. The mature fruit will split into 3 or 4 segments (valves), each releasing an oval shaped seed, which is covered in an yellow to orange/red coloured aril (depending on maturity and length of exposure). Fruit ripens over late winter into spring (3). Simple leaves with an alternate (spiral) arrangement are: up to 16 cm long, ovate or oblanceolate in shape with shallow toothed or crenate margins, dark green, dull on upper surface, paler green beneath, hairless, strong with a dry and thick paper like texture. Leaf apex is acute ending in a blunt tip, base shape is cuneate. Strong petiole is up to 4 cm in long. Venation is prominently raised on lower leaf surface (4 & 5). Distribution: From central to northern Qld. See also: Yellow Carabeen (Sloanea woollsii) lower on this page.
White Cedar Melia azedarach
This deciduous tree species originates in different types of forests including rainforests and is often used as a shade or street tree. It has a wide distribution range and displays vibrant green new foliage in early spring (Image 1). Bark is a two tone grey and white, tough, firm and fissured (2). Mauve scented flowers appear in spring and are followed by olive shaped fruit turning yellow when fully ripe. After leaf fall in autumn only bunches of yellow fruit will remain on the tree (3 & 4). The large compound leaf with bipinnate and tripinnate features can consist of more than seventy small leaflets, which are; up to 5 cm long and mostly ovate in shape with toothed or entire margins (5). (See Leaf Characteristics Page for information on terms used.) Notes: Fruit is poisonous to humans and livestock, but is eaten safely by a range of birds. Distribution: From the NSW south coast to Qld, NT & WA.
White Elderberry Sambucus gaudichaudiana
This sprawling native shrub propagates from underground rootstock with emerging shoots reaching a height of 3m. It naturally occurs on margins of rainforests, adjacent tall forests, on stream banks and is often found in regrowth (Image 1). Bark is firm in texture with scattered small corky blisters and a greyish brown in colour (2). Masses of pure white and scented flowers are borne on umbrella shaped panicles and bloom over spring (3). The globe-shaped fruit is; a berry measuring up to 5 mm in diameter, purple in colour when fully ripe and contains up to 6 small hard seeds surrounded by a yellow pulp (4). Pinnate or partly bi-pinnate compound leaves feature up to 11 separate leaflets, which are; up to 14 cm long, ovate or broadly lanceolate in shape with finely toothed margins, mid-green and rather dull on top, paler beneath, covered in short stiff hair, thin and soft in texture. Leaflet apex is acute to acuminate, base shape is cuneate to nearly rounded and often slightly asymmetric. Venation is clearly visible on both surfaces (5). Distribution: Widespread in Vic, NSW and Qld. Note: Additional features in identification are small leaflets sometimes found at the base of opposing leaves (not shown).
White Euodia Melicope micrococca Other names: Hairy Doughwood
The White Euodia or Hairy Doughwood is a medium to tall native tree species with an upright trunk up to 30m tall. It is a common occurrence in different rainforest types and often a pioneer species in regrowth areas (Image 1). Bark is light grey to pale brown in colour and has a firm texture. Bark on the lower trunk of older trees becomes rough and (soft) corky with blisters and horizontal fissures (2). Small white to cream coloured flowers are borne on large panicles and blossom over summer (3). The small brownish fruit ripens in late summer to autumn and contains up to 4 black seeds (4). The (trifoliolate) compound leaf consists of 3 leaflets, which are; up to 15 cm long, obovate to elliptic in shape with mostly entire margins, sparsely hairy on the upper surface, softly hairy beneath (densely hairy on mid vein), rather thick and firm in texture (5). Distribution: Mid-north coast of NSW to central Qld. See also Pink Doughwoood Melicope elleryana (Page 8) and Doughwood Acronychia octrandra (Page 3).
White Hollywood Auranticarpa rhombifolia [Pittosporum rhombifolia] Other names: Holly-leaved Pittosporum, White Holly, Queensland Pittosporum and Diamond-leaved Pittosporum
Auranticarpa rhombifolia is known by a range of common names, mainly due to its wide distribution range and popularity as an ornamental species. Under good conditions it can reach a height of 20m and is naturally found in subtropical and drier types of rainforests (Image 1). Bark is a whitish grey in colour with a rough and firm texture (2). Pure white flowers, up to 15mm in diameter, are arranged on large and crowded panicles covering the whole tree in late spring. Pleasantly scented flowers feature five oblong shaped petals and prominent stamens with a sturdy filament (3). Masses of yellow to orange coloured fruit (a capsule) ripen in autumn and split to disperse 1 to 3 shiny black seeds (4). Simple new leaves are arranged in a whorl formation and turn alternate when maturing. They are; up to 12 cm long, characteristically diamond shaped with irregular toothed margins towards the apex, hairless, smooth and quite firm in texture. Apex is short acuminate, base shape is cuneate to attenuate. Mid vein is raised on lower surface and fine venation is apparent when the leaf is held against the light (5). Distribution: Naturally occurring from northern NSW to tropical Qld.
White Laceflower Tree Archidendron hendersonii
This beautiful native tree occurs in subtropical and littoral rainforests as an understorey species less than 15m tall (Image 1). Bark on older specimens is a greyish brown in colour with a rather rough and flaky texture. Juvenile bark is firm with shallow fissures (2). Masses of gorgeous but short-lived flowers bloom in early spring. Bundles of stamens change from white to yellow over a short period of time and are up to 6 cm long (3). The fruit is a curled pod bright orange on the outside and yellow on the inside. The hard pod splits along its sides to reveal up to 6 black seeds with a very shiny, polished surface (3). The unusual bipinnate compound leaf consists of only two (sometimes 4) pinnae with 4 to 6 leaflets each, which are; up to 12 cm long, lanceolate (lance-shape) with entire margins, dark green and glossy on top, paler and dull below, hairless with a soft and smooth but strong (thin leathery) texture. Leaflet apex is acute with a fine point featuring a minute bristle; the asymmetric base shape is a good identification characteristic. The petiole (leaf stalk) is up to 5 cm long and features a small gland about half way. Venation is clearly visible showing a noticeably raised centre vein on lower leaflet surface (5). Distribution: NSW north-coast to southern Qld.
To locate trees by botanical name or to find related species go to:Species List Botanical, which also shows all family names.
White Paper Daisy Coronidium elatum
Under ideal conditions this attractive native shrub with a wide distribution range can attain a height of up to 2m. It naturally has a compact, upright and densely branched growth habit, preferring sunlit positions in tall open forests and woodlands (Picture 1). Bark on the trunk of older specimens becomes rough and fissured. It is brown in colour weathering to grey, whereas young branches are densely covered in white and softly woolly hair (2 & 3). Large flower heads held on densely hairy stalks appear at the end of branches and measure up to 5 cm in diameter. Numerous pure white bracts with a pointed apex are up to 2 cm long and surround the yellow orange coloured disc in the centre (4). Simple leaves with an alternate (spiral) arrangement are; up to 12 cm long, elliptic or lanceolate with entire or wavy margins, dull green, slightly hairy on top, whitish, woolly hairy beneath and very soft in texture. Leaf apex is acute, base shape is cuneate. Leaf stalk up to 2 cm long is clothed in white, woolly hair. Centre vein is sunken on the upper and prominently raised on the lower surface, lateral veins only visible on top. Distribution: Vic., NSW to southern Qld.
White's Tea-Tree Leptospermum whitei
The White's Tea-Tree is a sturdy, often multi-stemmed shrub reaching up to 5m in height (under ideal conditions), its preferred habitat are margins of coastal swamp forests and tidal waterways (Pictures 1 & 2). Young bark is mid-brown in colour turning grey with age and has a rough fibrous texture, with old bark shedding in papery short strips (3). Flowers appear in tight clusters over spring to early summer featuring 5 bright white and obovate shaped petals characteristic for the Leptospermum genus. They measure up to 12 mm in diameter when fully opened (4). Young green stems are covered in short fine hair. Simple leaves with an alternate arrangement are; up to 3 cm long, elliptic in shape with entire margins, hairless, dark green, rather dull on top, thick and stiff in texture. Venation is obscure except for mid vein. Leaf apex is acute ending in a blunt point, base shape is cuneate. The petiole is nearly non existent at 1 -2 mm long (5). Distribution: From the mid north coast of NSW to Qld. Note: The species is named after Cyril Tenison White (1890-1950), botanist, the White Tea-Tree is Kunzea ericoides. See Flower Identification and Leaf Characteristics Page for information on terms used.
Wild Cherry Exocarpos cupressiformis Other names: Native Cherry, Cherry Ballart
The appearance of this shrub or small tree is reminiscent to that of a young Cypress pine, hence the botanical species name of cupressiformis. It is a common understorey species, less than 10m in high, found in dry open forests and woodlands (Image 1). Bark on trunks of older specimens is rough, furrowed and tessellated (scaly), and has some resistance to low intensity fires. It is a grey brown in colour with a crumbly texture ((2). Minute flowers are borne on short spikes and vary in colour from greenish, cream to pale yellow (3). The unusual fruit is a small nut suspended beneath the swollen and fleshy (flower) stalk, which turns orange to deep red in colour when fully ripe. This fleshy stalk is edible, whereas the hard nut should not be eaten. The fruit, including the part of the fleshy stalk, is about 1 cm long (4). A magnifying glass is needed to observe the tiny scale-like leaves, which are roughly triangular in shape and less than 1 mm long. Branchlets are mid to dark green in colour and show a ribbed surface (5). Distribution: Tas, SA, Vic, NSW & Qld.
Wild May Kunzea flavescens
In full flower this shrub up to 4m high becomes very noticeable in its habitat of dry open forests and woodlands (Image 1). Bark is brown in colour and has a rough, fibrous and fissured texture (2). Tight groups of individual flowers appear at the end of young branchlets over spring. They are dominated by numerous white filaments with small yellow anthers and a prominent bell-shaped calyx with 5 pointed sepals (lobes) (3). This image shows the developing fruit, a capsule which becomes dry and woody at full maturity. It is attached to the stem without a stalk (sessile) and shows persistent calyx lobes at the apex (4). Simple leaves with an alternate (spiral) arrangement are; less than 1 cm long, broadly reverse lance-shaped (oblanceolate) with entire margins, hairless on top, rather thick and strong in texture. The stout petiole (leaf stalk) is up to 2mm long and yellowish. Distribution: South-east Qld.
Wild Parsley Lomatia silaifolia Other names: Crinkle Bush, Fern-leaved Lomatia, Parsley Bush
Wild Parsley or Crinkle Bush is a small native shrub growing to height of 2.5m with a compact growth habit and dense foliage (Image 1). Bark is reddish brown in colour showing fine longitudinal fissures (2). Up to 30 beautiful white flowers are arranged on a long spike and bloom over winter (3). Fruit is a flattened follicle up to 4 cm long, dark brown to black and contains numerous seeds enclosed in a papery wing, which are up to 20mm long (4). Alternately arranged pinnate compound leaves feature between 7 and 11 leaflets, which are; between 5 to 8 cm long with deeply lobed (up to 5 lobes) and toothed or just irregular toothed margins, elliptic to lanceolate in shape, mostly hairless and thin but firm in texture. Leaf apex can be acute with a blunt point or rounded. Leaves are dull mid-green in colour and when crushed release a scent that is reminiscent to parsley (5). Distribution: NSW central coast to southern Qld.
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Willi Willi Laurel Cryptocarya williwilliana Other names: Small-leaved Laurel
This tall shrub or small tree, less than 10m tall, is rare due to its restricted distribution range. Its conspicuous dense and glossy dark green foliage consists of small leaves mostly less than 3 cm long. It is found as an understorey species within dry rainforests and a member of the Laurel family (LAURACEAE). Find related species under the genus of Cryptocarya on the Botanical Species List (1). Bark is brown in colour and marked by small irregular ridges (2). Up to 7 tiny inconspicuous flowers are borne on small racemes about 2 cm long, which appear terminal or from axillary buds towards the end of young branches over spring. The obovoid (pear-shaped) perianth is up to 4 mm long and splits into 6 pointed lobes at the apex measuring 3 - 4 mm in diameter when fully opened (3). Branchlets and petioles (leaf stalks) are densely covered in fine brown hair. Simple leaves with an alternate arrangement are; up to 3 cm long, broadly elliptic or ovate with entire margins, dark green glossy on top, paler beneath, hairless and finely rough in texture due to raised fine network of veins (reticulate). Leaf apex is short acuminate ending in a rounded tip, base shape is cuneate (wedge-shaped) (4 & 5).Distribution: Only in the Willi Willi area on the upper Macleay river and New England N.P., NSW mid-north coast. Note: An attractive ornamental tree, seedlings are available from online nurseries.
Willow-leaved Hakea Hakea saliciifolia
Under favourable conditions the Willow-leaved Hakea Hakea saliciifolia can reach a height of up to 15m with a sparse canopy. The rather obvious dehiscent fruit of prior seasons remains on older branches and is a good identification feature. The species is found on margins of cooler rainforests and in wet tall forests (Image 1). Bark is a reddish brown (especially new exposed bark) in colour with a rough and flaky texture (2). Very hard woody fruits are up to 2.5 cm long with irregular warts and bumps showing on the outer surface. It contains 2 papery winged seeds per follicle only (3). New growth flushes in salmon colours and is finely hairy (4). Mature simple leaves with an alternate arrangement are: up to 12 cm long, narrow elliptic to narrow lanceolate in shape with entire margins, hairless, mid green and rather dull above, slightly paler beneath, smooth and firm to stiff in texture. Apex is acute, base shape is attenuate. Venation is faint with laterals veins just visible (5). Distribution: Mountainous areas from NSW mid-north coast to Qld border.
Wing-leaved Tulip Harpullia allata
This understorey shrub or sometimes small tree prefers a mountainous habitat within subtropical rainforests where it can reach a height of up to 6m. The distinctive foliage consisting of large compound leaves with a winged leaf stalk and rachis make this species relatively easy to identify (Image 1). Bark on older stems is finely rough in texture due to small blisters and fine ridges covering the surface. Colour is a reddish brown, if not obscured by mosses and lichen (2). Globe-shaped flower buds are hairy on the outside and appear sparsely along racemes between 5 and 12 cm long. The image also shows a pollinated flower where the 5 rounded sepals persist, but petals and stamens have fallen (3). The fruit is a capsule with 2 distinctive lobes measuring up to 3.5 cm in width and up to 2 cm in length. It changes from green to a yellowish brown colour with full maturity (4). Large pinnate compound leaves with up to 10 leaflets can be close to 40 cm long. Leaflets are; up to 15 cm long,, varied in shape from elliptic or oblong to oblanceolate with prominently toothed margins, glossy, dark green, mostly hairless, strong and slightly leathery in texture. The rachis (centre axis) and the up to 10 cm long petiole (leaf stalk) feature a wing with toothed margins. Venation is clearly visible and prominently raised on lower leaflet surface. Distribution: From NSW north coast to southern Qld.
Winged Broom Pea Jacksonia scoparia Other names: Dogwood, Broombush, Broom-like Jacksonia
This hardy species is very adaptable to different environments ranging from coastal locations receiving high rainfall averages to dry woodlands on the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range. It is a rather inconspicuous shrub or small tree up to 12m, but becomes noticeable when in full flower over late spring and summer (Image 1). Bark is brown and becomes rough, fibrous on the trunks of older specimens (2). Flowers, characteristic for the Pea & Bean Family (FABACEAE/FABOIDEA), are pale to deep yellow (nearly orange) in colour and up to 1cm in diameter. Up to 6 separate flowers are borne on small racemes emerging at the end of branches (3). The fruit, a flattened pod, is up to 1.5 cm long and turns brown in colour when fully mature. It is oblong in shape and covered in long fine whitish hair (4). Leaves are apparently absent on older plants, but might be present on saplings. Branchlets are typically dark greyish green, flat-sided, ribbed or flanged (winged). Distribution: From NSW south coast to southern Qld, reaching western inland regions.
Woolly Brush Apple Mischocarpus lachnocarpus Other names: Woolly Pear-fruit
The Woolly Brush Apple or Woolly Pear-fruit is a small tree species found within mountainous rainforest areas (Image 1). Bark is rather smooth and a dark green grey in colour (2). New foliage appearing in spring is a bright yellow green (3). Small yellow flowers 3 to 5 mm long are held on a raceme up to 25 cm in length and develop into an orange, hairy pear shaped fruit (4). Compound leaves feature up to 4 leaflets, which are; up to 14 cm long, mostly elliptic in shape with entire margins, firm and stiff in texture. Lower leaf surface, petiole and young stems are all covered in fine brown hair. The rounded or blunt pointed leaf apex has a small notch with a tiny bristle. Venation is clearly visible with a strongly raised mid vein covered in hair (4 & 5). Distribution: Northern NSW to northern Qld.
Yellow Aspen Sarcomelicope simplicifolia subsp. simplicifolia Other names: Yellow Acronychia
Under favourable conditions this medium sized tree can attain a height of up to 25m in subtropical and littoral rainforests (Image 1). Bark is dark grey in colour with a rough and fissured texture (2). Single or up to 4 small and cream coloured flowers are supported by a primary stalk that is softly hairy (3). The fleshy fruit (a drupe) is yellow to light brown in colour, measures up to 15 mm in diameter and contains shiny black seeds up to 5 mm long (4). Simple leaves with an opposite arrangement are; up to 18 cm long, broad elliptic to oblong with entire margins, hairless, dark green and glossy on top, firm, smooth in texture and scented when crushed. Petiole is whitish in colour, thin and slender, and can be more than 5 cm long (5). Distribution: NSW south coast to north Qld.
Yellow Carabeen Sloanea woollsii
This majestic very tall tree species can grow to more than 50 m in height and is often part of the highest canopy in subtropical rainforests. It has been extensively logged for its valueable timber. The specimen shown in picture 1 is being overtaken by a Strangler Fig (Ficus watkinsiana) (Images 1 & 2). Older trees develop large sail-like buttress roots. Bark is grey brown at the base and finely rough, turning to grey and a smoother texture further up the trunk (3). Fruit is a spiky capsule up to 20 mm long with 2 valves (segements), each containing a seed covered in a yellow or reddish aril (4). Simple (1-foliolate) leaves are; up to 16 cm long, elliptic to lanceolate in shape with toothed margins, hairless, smooth and strong in texture. Young shoots and petioles are covered in fine hair. On the lower leaf surface domatia, as hairy bristles, are visible at junctions of lateral veins along the mid rib (5). Distribution: from the mid-north coast of NSW to central Qld. See also: White Carabeen (Sloanea langii), above on this page and Maiden's Blush (Sloanea australis) Page 7.
Yellow Plumwood Pouteria myrsinifolia Other names Blunt-leaved Coondoo
The Yellow Plumwood or Blunt-leaved Coondoo is a small native tree species growing to a height of 15m and occurs in different types of rainforests habitats (Image 1). Bark is brown in colour with a rough and grainy texture featuring numerous fine longitudinal ridges (2). Yellowish green and cylindrical shaped flowers measure only up to 3mm wide by 7mm long. They are supported by solitary stalks less than 1 cm long (3). Young stems, flower stalks and petioles are covered in very fine and short hair. Developing fruit is shown to the bottom right in the image (4). Simple neatly alternately arranged (two-ranked) leaves are; up to 10 cm long, elliptic to oblanceolate with entire margins, dark green with a satin sheen on top, paler underneath, medium thick, strong, nearly leathery and on this specimen mostly hairless. Apex is bluntly pointed, leaf base shape is attenuate. Mid vein is raised on lower surface and hairy at the base, otherwise venation is rather faint (5). Distribution: NSW central coast to southern Qld. See also: Black Apple (Pouteria australis) Page 1.
To locate trees by botanical name or to find related species go to:Species List Botanical, which also shows all family names.
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Yellow Satinheart Bosistoa transversa
This elegant small to medium sized tree species reaching a height of 15m is found in warmer subtropical rainforests (Image 1). Bark is brown in colour (grey patches are lichen), and features small longitudinal fissures and blisters (2). White to cream coloured flowers are borne on large panicles emerging at the end of branches. They feature five ovate petals and 10 prominent stamens with solid flattened filaments and brown anthers (3). The fruit is a small woody follicle less than 1.5 cm long with distinct horizontal ribs showing on the surface (4). Compound leaves consist of two to three leaflets or are sometimes reduced to a single leaf. Leaflets are; up to 14 cm long, broad elliptic to lanceolate with entire margins, hairless, rather thick and strong in texture. Venation is very prominent on lower leaflet surface (5). Distribution: northern NSW to central Qld.